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Zimbabwe Banking Sector Review (Part One)


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Entrepreneurs build their businesses in an environment that they sometimes cannot control. The strength of business is tested and tested by the peripherals of the environment. There are forces in the environment that can serve as a great opportunity or a threatening threat to the survival of business. Entrepreneurs need to understand the environment in which they work in order to take advantage of new opportunities and help them cope with potential threats.
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This article is used to understand the forces and their impact on Zimbabwe’s banking entrepreneurs. A brief historical overview of Zimbabwe’s banking has been made. The impact of the regulatory and economic environment on the sector is assessed. Analysis of the structure of the banking sector contributes to the assessment of the major forces in the industry.
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Historical background

With independence (1980), Zimbabwe had a complex banking and financial market, with commercial banks largely foreign. The country had a central bank, inherited from the Central Bank of Rhodesia and Nyasaland at the time of the Federation’s liquidation.
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For the first few years of independence, the Zimbabwe government did not interfere with the banking industry. There was neither nationalization of foreign banks, nor restrictive legislative intervention on which sectors to finance, or interest rates charged, despite the socialist national ideology. However, the government purchased some of the shares in the two banks. He purchased 62% of the Rombank Nedbank at a fair price when the bank left the country.
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This decision may have been motivated by a desire to stabilize the banking system. The bank was converted as Zimbank. The state did not interfere much with the bank’s operations. In 1981, the State also cooperated with the Bank of Credit and Commercial International Organizations (BCCI) as a 49% shareholder in a new commercial bank, the Credit and Commerce Bank of Zimbabwe (BCCZ). This was accepted and turned into the Zimbabwe Commercial Bank (CBZ) when the BCCI collapsed in 1991 on charges of unethical business practices.
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This should not be seen as nationalization, but in accordance with state policies to prevent the closure of companies. Subsequently, the shares of Zimbank and CBZ were diluted to below 25%.
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In the first decade, no indigenous banks were licensed, and there was no evidence that the government had any financial reform agenda. Harvey (n.d., p. 6) cites the following as evidence of the lack of a coherent financial reform plan in those years:
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– In 1981, the government said it would encourage rural banking services, but the plan was not implemented.
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– In 1982 and 1983, a commission on money and finance was proposed, but it was not created.

– Until 1986, no financial reform program was mentioned in the Five-Year National Development Plan.

Harvey argues that the government’s tendency to interfere with the financial sector may be explained by the fact that it did not want to jeopardize the interests of the white population, which is an integral part of banking.
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The country was vulnerable to this sector of the population, as it controlled agriculture and production, which formed the basis of the economy. The state applied a conservative approach to indigenization when it learned from other African countries whose economies almost collapsed due to the forced eviction of the white community without first developing a mechanism for transferring skills and capacity-building to the black community.
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The economic cost of improper intervention was considered too high. Another plausible reason for the policy of non-interference was that the state, independently, inherited from its predecessor a highly controlled economic policy with rigid exchange control mechanisms. As foreign currency control had an impact on credit control, the government by default had strong control over the sector for both economic and political purposes; therefore, there was no need to intervene.
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Financial reforms

However, after 1987, the government, at the request of multilateral lenders, launched the Economic and Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP). Under this program, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) has begun to advocate for financial reforms through liberalization and deregulation. He argued that oligopoly in banking and lack of competition deprive sectors of choice and quality of services, innovation and efficiency. Thus, as early as 1994, the RBS Annual Report indicates a desire for greater competition and efficiency in the banking sector, which will lead to banking reforms and new legislation that would:
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– allow prudential supervision of banks in accordance with international best practice

– allow both bank audits and on-site audits to enhance RBS’s banking oversight and

– increased competition, innovation and improved customer service by banks.

Subsequently, the Registrar of Banks of the Ministry of Finance, in conjunction with the RBS, began to issue licenses to new players when the financial sector opened. From the mid-1990s to December 2003, the financial sector saw a surge in entrepreneurial activity when indigenous banks were established. The graph below shows the trend in the number of financial institutions by category, effective since 1994. This trend shows the initial growth of commercial banks and discount houses, with a further decline. Initially, commercial bank growth slowed, picking up around 1999. The decline of commercial banks and discount houses was due to their conversion, mostly to commercial banks.

Source: RBZ Reports
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Different entrepreneurs have used various methods to penetrate the financial services sector. Some started providing consulting services, then went to commercial banks, while others set up branded brokerage firms, which they raised in discount houses.

From the beginning of the liberalization of financial services until about 1997. There is a noticeable absence of locally owned commercial banks. Some of the reasons for this were:

– Conservative licensing policy by the Secretary of Financial Institutions, as it was risky to license indigenous commercial banks without appropriate legislative authority and banking controls.
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– Banking entrepreneurs chose non-bank financial institutions because they were less costly both in terms of initial capital and working capital requirements. For example, a merchant bank requires fewer staff, does not need banking facilities, and will not need to make expensive small retail deposits, which will reduce overhead and reduce profit registration times. Thus, at this time, there was a rapid growth of non-banking financial institutions, for example. by 1995, five out of ten commercial banks had started operating within the previous two years. This has become the route of choice for commercial banking for some, e.g. Royal Bank, NMB Bank and Trust Bank.
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It was expected that some foreign banks would also enter the market after the financial reforms, but this was not likely due to a restriction on holding at least 30% of local equity. Strict controls on foreign currency could also play a role, as could the cautious approach taken by licensing authorities. Existing foreign banks were not required to divest part of their shares, although Barclay Bank did so by issuing them at a local exchange.

Harvey argues that financial liberalization implies that eliminating the lending direction implies that banks will automatically be able to lend on a commercial basis. But he argues that banks may not be able to do so because they are affected by the borrowers’ inability to lend because of exchange rate restrictions or price controls. Similarly, having positive real interest rates will usually increase bank deposits and increase financial intermediation, but this logic mistakenly assumes that banks will always lend more efficiently. He also argues that licensing new banks does not imply increased competition, since it implies that new banks will be able to attract competent management, and that banks’ legislation and supervision will be adequate to prevent fraud and thus prevent bank failures and the financial crisis. Unfortunately, his concerns do not seem to have been resolved in the framework of the reform of the Zimbabwean financial sector to the detriment of the national economy.

Operating environment

Any business activity is limited or promotes its operating environment. This section analyzes the predominant Zimbabwean environment that can affect the banking sector.

Political and legislative

The political environment in the 1990s was stable, but after 1998 it became unstable, mainly due to the following factors:

– extra-budgetary payments to war veterans after they attacked the state in November 1997. This greatly strained the economy, which led to the run for the dollar. As a result, the Zimbabwean dollar depreciated by 75% as the market anticipated the effects of the government’s decision. This day was recognized as the beginning of a severe decline in the country’s economy and was called “Black Friday”. This depreciation has been a catalyst for further inflation. After a month, there were violent food riots.

– poorly planned agrarian land reform, started in 1998, when white commercial farmers were allegedly evicted and replaced by blacks without proper consideration of land rights or compensation systems. This has led to a significant decline in the productivity of the country, which is largely dependent on agriculture. The way the land was redistributed has angered the international community, claiming that it is racially and politically motivated. International donors have withdrawn support for the program.

– an ill-advised military invasion called “Sovereignty of Operation” to protect the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1998 resulted in enormous costs, without obvious benefit to itself and

– Elections, which the international community claims were rigged in 2000,2003 and 2008.

These factors led to international isolation, significantly reducing the inflow of foreign currencies and foreign direct investment into the country. Investor confidence has been greatly eroded. Agriculture and tourism, which are traditionally huge earners of foreign currency, have broken up.

For the first time decades after independence, the Banking Act (1965) was the main legislative base. As this was accepted when most commercial banks owned by foreign owners did not have any indication of prudential lending, domestic loans, share of shareholders’ funds that could be lent to one borrower, determination of risky assets and lack of reserves for bank checking.

The Banking Law (24:01), which came into force in September 1999, was the culmination of RBS’s desire to liberalize and deregulate financial services. This Law regulates commercial banks, commercial banks and discount houses. The bar’s entrances were eliminated, leading to increased competition. Deregulation has also allowed banks some latitude to operate in non-core services. It seems that this latitude was not sufficiently demarcated and therefore an opportunity was opened up for venture entrepreneurs. RBZ stands for this deregulation as a way to dismantle the financial sector and increase efficiency. (RBZ, 2000: 4). These two factors offered an opportunity for enterprising indigenous bankers to set up their own businesses in the industry. The law was revised and redesigned as Chapter 24:20 in August 2000. Increased competition has led to the introduction of new goods and services, for example. e-banking and banking. This entrepreneurial activity led to “deepening and sophistication of the financial sector” (RBZ, 2000: 5).

As part of its financial reforms, the Reserve Bank Act (22:15) was adopted in September 1999.

Its main purpose is to strengthen the Bank’s supervisory role by:

– setting prudential standards within which banks operate

– Observation of banks both outside and outside

– the imposition of sanctions and, where necessary, the placement of supervised and

– investigation of banking institutions where necessary.

The law was still flawed, as Dr. Tsumba, the then governor of the RBS, claimed that the RBS needed responsibility for both licensing and oversight, since “the ultimate sanction available for banking supervision is the knowledge of the banking sector that a license has been issued. will be canceled for gross misconduct. ” However, the government seems to have resisted this by January 2004. It can be argued that this shortfall could give some bankers the impression that their licenses will not happen. Dr Tsumba, observing the role of RBDs in managing banks, directors and shareholders responsible for the viability of banks, stated that this was neither a role nor an intention of RBBs to microbially manage banks and direct their daily operations.

It seems that the view of his successor was substantially different from that of the Orthodox view, hence the evidence of micro-governance observed in the sector since December 2003.

In November 2001, a policy of troubled and insolvent banks, developed over the past few years, came into force. One of his intended goals was that “the policy enhances regulatory transparency, accountability and ensures that regulatory measures are applied fairly and consistently.” The prevailing view in the market is that this policy, during its implementation after 2003, is certainly insufficient. as measured against these ideals. It is debatable how transparent the inclusion and exclusion of vulnerable banks was in the BWG.

The new RBS governor was appointed in December 2003, when the economy is in freefall. It has made significant changes to its monetary policy, which has caused the banking sector to shake. In January 2004, RBD was finally authorized to act as both a licensing authority and a regulatory body for financial institutions. The regulatory environment has been revised and significant changes have been made to the laws governing the financial sector.

The Problem Solving Financial Institutions Act (2004) was adopted. Due to the new regulatory environment, a number of financial institutions have experienced problems. RBZ placed seven institutions under curation, one was closed and the other was put under liquidation.

In January 2005, three of the troubled banks were consolidated by virtue of the powers of the Distressed Financial Institutions Act to create a new institution, the Zimbabwean Union Banking Group (ZABG). These banks allegedly failed to repay the funds advanced to them by the RBS. The affected institutions were Trust, Royal and Barbican. The shareholders appealed and won an appeal against the seizure of their assets, ruling that the Supreme Court had declared that the UGCC was trading illegally acquired assets. These bankers appealed to the Minister of Finance and lost their appeal. Subsequently, in late 2006, they went to court, as required by law. Finally, as of April 2010, the RBS finally agreed to return the “stolen assets”.

Another measure taken by the new governor was to force a change in management in the financial sector, as a result of which most of the founders of business banks were ousted from their own companies under different pretexts. Some eventually fled the country under threat of arrest. The banks’ boards were restructured.

Economic environment

Economically, the country was stable until the mid-1990s, but the recession began around 1997-1998, mainly because of political decisions made at the time already discussed. Economic policy was guided by political considerations. Thus, multinational donors were withdrawn and the country was isolated. At the same time, in the country of 2001-2002, the drought suffered from drought, which exacerbated the detrimental effect of farm eviction on the production of crop production. This decrease in production had a negative impact on banks that financed agriculture. Disruptions in commercial agriculture and the concomitant decline in food production have led to an unstable position in food security. In the last twelve years, the country has been forced to import corn, straining even less foreign currency resources.

Another impact of the agrarian reform program was that most farmers who borrowed money from banks were unable to service loans, but the government, which took over their business, refused to take responsibility for the loans. At the same time unable to promptly and fairly compensate farmers, it became impractical for farmers to service loans. Thus, banks were exposed to these bad loans.

Чистим результатом стала спіральна інфляція, закриття компаній, що призвело до високого рівня безробіття, дефіциту іноземної валюти, оскільки міжнародні джерела коштів вичерпалися та дефіцит продовольства. Дефіцит іноземної валюти призвів до дефіциту палива, що, у свою чергу, зменшило промислове виробництво. Отже, валовий внутрішній продукт (ВВП) зменшується з 1997 року. Це негативне економічне середовище означало зменшення банківської діяльності, оскільки промислова діяльність знижувалася, а банківські послуги були спрямовані на паралельний, а не на формальний ринок.

Як показано на графіку нижче, інфляція зросла спіраль і досягла піку 630% у січні 2003 року. Після короткого виправлення тенденція до зростання продовжувала зростати до 1729% до лютого 2007 року. Після цього країна в мирний час вступила у період гіперінфляції. періоду. Інфляція наголошує на банках. Деякі стверджують, що рівень інфляції зріс, оскільки девальвація валюти не супроводжувалася скороченням дефіциту бюджету. Гіперінфляція змушує процентні ставки зростати, тоді як вартість заставної застави падає, що призводить до невідповідності активів та пасивів. Це також збільшує неподаткові позики, оскільки більше людей не надають свої позики.

Насправді, до 2001 року більшість банків прийняли консервативну стратегію кредитування, наприклад. загальний обсяг авансів для банківського сектора становив лише 21,7% загальних активів галузі порівняно з 31,1% у попередньому році. Банки вдалися до нестабільних непроцентних доходів. Деякі почали торгувати на паралельному ринку іноземної валюти, часом уступаючи в змову з RBZ.

В останній половині 2003 року спостерігався сильний дефіцит грошових коштів. Люди перестали користуватися банками як посередниками, оскільки вони не були впевнені, що зможуть отримати доступ до своїх готівкових коштів, коли їм це буде потрібно. Це зменшило базу депозитів для банків. Через короткостроковий строк погашення депозитної бази банки, як правило, не в змозі інвестувати значну частину своїх коштів у довгострокові активи та, таким чином, були високоліквідними до середини 2003 року. Однак у 2003 році через попит клієнтів на прибуток, що відповідає інфляції, більшість корінних банків вдалися до спекулятивних інвестицій, що дало більш високу прибутковість.

Ця спекулятивна діяльність, головним чином, щодо непрофільних банківських операцій, сприяла експоненційному зростанню у фінансовому секторі. Наприклад, один банк збільшив свою базу активів із 200 мільярдів доларів (50 мільйонів доларів США) до 800 мільярдів доларів (200 мільйонів доларів США) протягом одного року.

Однак банкіри стверджують, що те, що губернатор називає спекулятивним непрофільним бізнесом, вважається найкращою практикою у більшості прогресивних банківських систем у всьому світі. Вони стверджують, що незвично для банків займати позиції в капіталі в небанківських установах, вони позичили гроші для захисту своїх інвестицій. Наведено приклади таких банків, як Nedbank (RSA) та J P Morgan (США), які контролюють великі інвестиції в нерухомість у своїх портфелях. Банкіри переконливо стверджують, що ці інвестиції іноді використовуються для захисту від інфляції.

Доручення нового губернатора РБЗ для банків відмовитись від своїх позицій протягом ночі та негайне відкликання RBZ підтримки на ночівлю для банків стимулювали кризу, яка призвела до значних невідповідностей активів та пасивів та скорочення ліквідності для більшості банків . Ціни на нерухомість і Зімбабве фондова біржа знизилися одночасно, через масові продажі банками, які намагалися прикрити свої позиції. Втрата вартості на ринку цінних паперів означала втрату вартості застави, яку більшість банків мали замість позик, які вони надавали.

Протягом цього періоду Зімбабве залишався в кризі заборгованості, оскільки більшість його зовнішніх боргів були або не обслуговувані, або недостатньо обслуговувалися. Внаслідок цього погіршення платіжного балансу чинив тиск на валютні резерви та завищену валюту. Загальний внутрішній борг уряду збільшився з 7,2 млрд. Дол. США (1990 р.) До 2,8 трлн. Дол. США (2004 р.). Таке зростання внутрішнього боргу зумовлене високим бюджетним дефіцитом та скороченням міжнародного фінансування.

Соціокультурний

Через мінливу економіку після 90-х років населення стало досить мобільним, значна кількість професіоналів емігрувала з економічних причин. Інтернет та супутникове телебачення зробили світ справді глобальним селом. Клієнти вимагали того ж рівня досконалості сервісу, якому вони піддавалися в усьому світі. Це зробило якість обслуговування диференційною перевагою. Був також попит на банки вкладати значні кошти в технологічні системи.

Зростаючі витрати на ведення бізнесу в гіперінфляційному середовищі призвели до високого рівня безробіття та супутнього краху реального доходу. Як настільки ретельно зауважив Зімбабве Незалежний (2005: B14), прямим результатом гіперінфляційного середовища є “те, що заміщення валюти є реальним, що означає, що долар Зімбабве відмовляється від функції функціонування сховища вартості, розрахункової одиниці та засобу обміну” “до стабільніших іноземних валют.

У цей період виник заможний корінний сегмент суспільства, який був багатим готівкою, але уникав опікувань банків. Паралельно ринок іноземної валюти та грошових коштів, що виникає, під час кризи готівки посилював це. Ефективно це зменшило клієнтську базу для банків, тоді як більше банків виходило на ринок. Таким чином, існувала агресивна конкуренція в умовах зменшення ринку.

До соціально-економічних витрат, пов’язаних з гіперінфляцією, належать: ерозія паритету купівельної спроможності, підвищена невизначеність у бізнес-плануванні та бюджеті, зменшення наявного доходу, спекулятивна діяльність, яка відволікає ресурси від виробничої діяльності, тиск на внутрішній обмінний курс через збільшення попиту на імпорт та погану віддачу на заощадження. У цей період для збільшення доходу було посилено транскордонну торгівлю, а також товарообіг людей, які імпортували з Китаю, Малайзії та Дубаї. Це фактично означало, що імпортні замінники місцевої продукції посилювали конкуренцію, негативно впливаючи на місцеві галузі.

Оскільки більше банків вийшло на ринок, який зазнав значного відтоку мозку з економічних причин, це стало причиною того, що багато недосвідчених банкірів були кинуті в глибокий кінець. Наприклад, засновники директора ENG Asset Management мали менше п'яти років досвіду роботи у сфері фінансових послуг, але все ж ENG була найбільш швидкозростаючою фінансовою установою до 2003 року. Припускається, що її провал у грудні 2003 року був зумовлений юнацьким завзяттям, жадібністю та відсутністю досвід. Крах ENG вплинув на деякі фінансові установи, які були піддані цьому фінансово, а також викликав політ вкладників, що призвело до краху деяких корінних банків.

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Aero India

AERO INDIA 2005 FEATURES

1. Retail villages are planned in the exhibition area and in the "Air" viewing area. For the convenience of dignitaries and dear visitors, the most attractive Indian crafts were sold in kiosks in retail villages. Talented craftsmen benefited because their fine products were sold by the thousands.

2. Bharat Electronics Limited has provided support for all communications and infrastructure for AERO INDIA 2005. Fax, Mobile Phones, Walkie-Talkie, Internet, Public Messaging System, Closed-Circuit TV, Audio-Visual Projection in Meeting Rooms, Registration Center, etc. Bharat Electronics Limited.

3. The first Aero India Golf Tournament was organized at the Karnataka Golf Association, Bangalore. CII is involved in organizing these unique features that have been used by all visitors around the world.

4. Peter Thompson has developed an 18-hole championship course. The club area is 30,000 square feet. The flood lighting range was the longest in India.

5. Sidewalk on the runway is prepared using a weight loss counter. It should also be noted that a glass mesh was used to add strength. A special feature of this was dense bituminous concrete using polymer modified bitumen to PCN 40.

6. The Media Center had 250 members. It was housed in an all-new 4,200-square-foot hanger.

7. Bangalore Indian Institute of Science has adopted Box Technology for Subway Performance to connect AFSY exhibition and interior areas. They finished the job in record time.

8. Among the 57 speakers, 33 were from abroad.

9. Very interesting and informative magazines that covered extensively aviation, space, and defense issues have attracted many worthy individuals. These colorful magazines were: Aviation Week Group (New York), Aerospace and Maritime International (published from Mumbai), Chanakya Aerospace and Maritime Review (New Delhi), World Defense (New Delhi), Indian Defense Review (New Delhi), Vayu Aerospace Review (New Delhi), India Aviation – Civil and Military (Mumbai), India Defense Book Book (New Delhi), International Aerospace Review – Analysis and Analysis (Mumbai), Intervester Publishing House ( Russia), Management Publications SP, Private Limited (New Delhi) and Sterling Book House (Mumbai). These bookstores and bookstores captivated visitors with information and critical analysis on defense. Each page had a wealth of valuable data.

10. Indian companies, mostly from Bangalore, participated in this show. Some were from New Delhi.

11. Software Companies such as Aster Teleservices (P) Ltd., Sri Amulia 3rd Floor Manor, Mahesh Nagar, Hyderabad-1., Autotech Systems (P) Limited, 27, 24th Saraki Lake, 5th phase, JP Nagar, Bangalore – 560 078., BACHAL Software Limited, HAL Estate, Airport lane, Bangalore – 560 017., CADES Digitech (P) Limited, anchorage, 100 Richmond Road 100, Bangalore – 560 025., Com Avia Systems Technologies Private Limited., 47 Gangamma Road Road, Jalahalli Post Office, Bangalore – 560 013., Connect Electronics Private Limited, 1878. New Tipasandra Main Road, Bangalore – 560 075., Datta Templates (I) Private Limited, New 19, Old No. 16, Aza Gowder Road, West Mambalam, Chennai – 600 033., Datason (B) Private Limited, 1006, Com Narayana Reddy Plex, BEML Main Road, New Tippasandra, Bangalore – 560 075., 4B Sundaram Integrated Digital Systems 46P Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkata – 700 016., Quest, 55 Quest Towers, Whitefield Main Road, 04 Mahadeva8 ., Satyam Limited Computer Services, SDC Division No. 45,46,47 E-City, Phase II, KIADB Industrial Area, Bangalore – 560 100., Samtel, 52 Community Center, New Friends Coway, New Delhi., Shogi Communications Limited, 803 8th Floor Ansal Bhavan, 16 KG Marg, New Delhi – 110 001., Sigma Electro Systems, M-83 MIDC, Ambad Nashik-10., Sipla interplant systems Limited, 3 Gangadhara Chetty Road, Bangalore – 560 042., Silver Software, Plot-23 & 24 EPIP, 1st fa and KIADB, Whitefield, Bangalore – 560 066., SLN Technologies Private Limited, 889 4th Cross, 7th Main Stage HAL II, Indinagar, Bangalore – 560 008., Speak Systems Limited, B-49 Electronic Complex, Kushayguda, Hyderabad – 500 062., Umac Avionics Private Limited, 143 Umac House, 18th Main HAL Stage 2, Bangalore – 560 008., United Telecoms Limited, 18A / 19 Doddanekundi Industrial Area, Mahadevapura Post Office, Bangalore – 560 048, etc. . , had beautiful pavilions in this grand show to reveal their invaluable contribution to Indian Aviation, Aerospace and Information Technology. As Bangalore is embraced by popular software institutes, many software technocrats have combined and created these companies to serve the DRU, Air Force, Navy, Air Force, Rockets, Weapons, UAV, Helicopters and Bharat Electronics.

12. Alpha Design Technologies (P) Limited, Bangalore develops simulation command, requirements for managing ground, ship, air systems. They also manufacture night vision devices, simulators, radars, communications systems and other Indian defense needs.

13. Amphenol Interconnect India Private Limited, 105 Bhosari Industrial Area, Bhosari Pune manufacturers and sells many varieties of connectors, cable harnesses and antenna products. They serve military and aerospace, automotive and medical, electronics, wireless infrastructure and mobile phones. They are leading dealers in India's defense sector.

14. Apollo Private Limited's computing labs specialize in embedded computing, digital communications, defense and aerospace. In Agni II, LCA they offered their services.

15. Hyderabad-based Aster Teleservices Private Limited has provided Yoman services to Indian defense units for data collection and control, smart cards, LC Launcher link, Fiber Optic Technology, PCI timer, Unimux, handheld cable tester and more.

16. Airdel (India) Limited, with the technical assistance of UK aviation, has branches in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Kanpur, Pune and Bangalore. They manufacture and supply speed and other components to the aerospace and commercial industries.

17. Lubricants supplied by Avi-Oil India Private Limited are the only approved military center. Airworthiness and Certification, Ministry of Defense. This company is registered with the General Directorate of Air Quality Assurance as a suitable manufacturer of aviation products. It cooperates with NYCO SA France. Indian Oil Corporation, Balmer Lowry has teamed up to create this unique oil for the defense of India and civil aviation.

18. BACHAL Software Limited has a loan to develop real-time simulators, development and testing of Avionics software for critical and critical safety systems used for flight control, flight prevention, transmission, weapons use, fuel management and more. They offer their services to DRDO, HAL, ADA laboratories, the Indian Armed Forces, in addition to serving Thales, Rolls Royce, SAGEM, ECE, British Airways and more.

19. Bijal Petroleum Equipment Corporation, having its office at 5/210 Ashirwad Industrial Estate, Ram Mandir Road, Gargeon (w), Mumbai – 400 104, provides aviation ground support and equipment for handling and testing aircraft, refueling helicopters for Defense of India.

20. Some kiosks featured exquisite items, handicrafts made by Central Cottage Industries Corporation of India Limited, Cauvery, Karnataka, state art and Emporium crafts to entertain visitors and get aesthetically pleasing. Many women visitors from both India and abroad have been very tempted by the beauty of every product sold there.

21. Sari is a traditional dress worn by Indian women. So, in Aero-Indian – 2005, there was a kiosk for a silk sari sari to distract. Many thousands of well-designed sari were on sale, and the women-VIPs had a good time there. Karnataka Soaps & Detergents (P) Limited also introduced its soaps which have a pleasant aroma.

22. Chandra International, Mumbai is engaged in export and import, switch trade and represents international companies such as ESL Defense, UK, Douglas SPD, UK, Goodrich, USA and Orbit ACS.

23. ComAvia Systems Technologies (P) Ltd. Bangalore provides services in the fields of Avionics integration for Indian high flying aircraft programs for LCA, Jaguar, MiG27 and more. They also create Integration test rigs and other test solutions consisting of data acquisition and modeling over MIL-STD-1553B, ARINC429, Analog, Digital, Serial and other interfaces.

24. Data Templates (I) Private Limited, Chennai has developed aeronautical, naval, land and space applications such as mission computer and aircraft displays, on-board computer and rocket fire control systems. radar subsystems, ATEs for aircraft, land-based spacecraft and vehicles.

25. For DRDO, Department of Aerospace, System Buildings and Aerospace, Datasol (B) Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore is a very good service in designing, developing and integrating state-of-the-art modular products in avionics, cockpit display and more. It is an ISO 9001-2000 company.

26. DRDO employs 5,000 scientists, 25,000 other scientific and technical and support staff, and 54 laboratories. Contact persons: Dr.D.Banerjee, Telephone 91-011-23016640, Brig Umang Kapoor, Director, Telephone: 91-011-2301-3209, BC Srikanta Deputy Chairman of DRDO.

27. Dynamic technology, Bangalore deals with ailerons, flaps for ITT-36 simulators; wing and rear fuselage for Lakshia, high performance UAVs; Control surfaces for Su-30 mki fighters such as vertical fins, stabilizers, canary, vent fins and rails, ground equipment for military jet support, servos for helicopter control; Transmission products and electro-hydraulic braking systems for combat tanks. Manufacturing and Assembly of Lakshi Flying Structures, Indian Unmanned Aerial Target Aircraft, Hall 155-36. Dynamatic Aerospace will collaborate with HAL to develop Airframe designs for the 30 mk Dry Fighter aircraft.

28. Enpro Secan India Ltd., New Delhi launches steam cycle cooling system for armored combat vehicles, liquid cooling systems for radars, antennas, etc., ACIDC wave guides, brush and brushless motors, motor motors for rods, radars, rockets, missiles etc. ., Blower fans axial centrifugal battle tanks, XIBC weapons and more. Heat transfer systems for aircraft, battle tanks and the like. They serve HAL, ADA, ECIL, BEL, DRDO, IAF, Indian Army, BDL, Air India, Thales. , Airbus, Eurocopter, MTU, Embracer, LUCAS, Air France, Lufthansa, etc,

29. Silver oxide batteries, nickel, cadmium batteries for Indian warplanes, helicopters, torpedoes and rockets are supplied by High Energy Batteries Ltd. (Tamil Nadu). Contact: S.Arunachalam, V.Balasubramaniam, Fax: 91-4339250516, 91-431-2414455.

30. Terra Vista's 3D Terrain Generation 9.8 product range is for sale in Kolkata's integrated digital systems. These 3D databases are used in war games, situation analysis, flight simulation, training, etc.,

31. It was interesting to note that JS Precisions, Bangalore is formed under the scheme of women entrepreneurs. Contact person is Ms. Gianti, fax: 91-080-26637921, telephone: 91-080-266372707. They supply sheet metal, machined and non-metallic components for aircraft and aircraft engines. Clutches, gaskets, fasteners, lock washers and the products it supplies to IAF, DRDO, marine aviation and HAL. They produce over 800 accurate critical / non-critical components.

32. Kumaran Industries, Bangalore manufactures jet engine parts for the aerospace and aeronautical industries using CNC technology. The development of precision aircraft parts and air engines for LCA, ADA, ALH, 14 passenger aircraft, SARAS (NAL), ADE, Navy and Air Force aircraft is their invaluable contribution to the Indian Air Force. They have also received recognition from foreign companies such as Magellan's uTGU technology. Contact person – Mr Mohan, Director, Telephone: 91-80-23409113, Fax 91-80-23381498. Mr. M. Parthasarati is the Technical Director.

33. Maini Precision Products (P) Ltd., Bangalore serves Honeywell USA, Moog Aerospace UK, WA, Goodrich, USA, Sneema Motors, France and the like, manufacturing machined components. Contact: Shaikendra Pratap Singh, Fax: + 91-80-51272500, 91-80-51272400.

34. The Ministry of Defense of India has licensed Max Aerospace Aviation, Mumbai, for the supply and installation of the Avionics aviation system, drones, aircraft, aerospace systems, helicopters and weapons. This company is proud to say that they have been approved by DGCA, HAL, DGAQA and CHEMILAC and it is registered with the IAF. Navy and Indian Coast Guard. Works on their maintenance are also approved by NAVAC. ADF, VDR and CUR. Work in the cockpit of tools, lighting, gyroscopes and frame components has been quality and refined. Contact person: Bharat Malkani, Phone: 91-22-26135545, Fax: 91-22-26162613.

35. The trade industry, the Indian Army, the Maritime Coast Guard and the IAF prefer to use specialized survival tents for helicopter crews, inflatable lifeguards, life jackets, etc., manufactured by Meridian Inflatables Private Limited, Mumbai. He has 25 years of experience and is ISO 9001 certified. Contact: Major Arun Fatak (Recovery) Phone: 91-22-28570369, Fax 91-22-28572927.

36. MIDHANI, Hyderabad, which has developed 75 alloys through the tremendous efforts of their research team.

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Philippine jumping islands – an exciting experience

Few outdoor activities can be more fun than jumping on the island if planned properly. In this article, I will talk about some of the guidelines that will guide you through the maze of the Philippine Jumping Islands and how you and your partner can enjoy it. So, let's take a trip to the Philippines and see if there is a jump island there. Enjoy a fun snorkeling experience, exquisite dishes and pristine coral reefs covered in colorful fish and more.

The Philippine jumping islands are no different as the Philippines, as an island, consists of 7,100 islands located in Southeast Asia. What makes the Philippine island jumps in this island paradise even more appealing is that it doesn't cost you an arm or a leg.

If you are a nature lover, you will enjoy every minute of your visit and activities: beautiful white sand beaches, great and delicious food and breathtaking scenery. You will also enjoy all kinds of water sports: diving, parasailing, surfing, snorkeling and more.

What would you do with 7,100 islands in one country? Studying some of these may be the obvious answer if time is on your side. In any case, this is probably what you might do during a future trip to the Philippines.

Since you have decided to go to the Philippines Jumping Islands, take a piece of paper and cross out the plan. Make it real, fulfilling and flexible. When entering foreign territories, be sure to include plan B in your general plan, as sometimes ferries depart late, the aircraft may be delayed, and many other unknown factors caused by the mother nature.

Time is an important factor to consider in your plan. Let's say you want to go to Cebu, Philippines for island hopping. As if arriving from the US, you are staying at a hotel in the capital city of Manila. The train from Manila to Cebu takes about 45 minutes. All things considered, when you arrive in Cebu City, Cebu City, you can rest a bit and begin your next trip to the island. In all likelihood, you need a day or more to go from one island to another.

On your voyage, you will use domestic flights, a small boat known as ATMs for short trips, roro boats and ferries for longer if needed. On land you may need to take public transport such as buses, taxis, car rentals or rent a private car with a driver for a very reasonable price. Almost everywhere there will be plenty of food and drink to meet your needs. This should not bother you. Make sure you only carry drinking water or drink water from closed bottles of water.

After planning in Cebu City, you can plan for Hop Island for the following destinations: Bohol, Mactan Island, Oriental Negroes, Leyte, Sequoir, and more. For the sake of argument, among these five islands, I will show you how Bohol and Leith Island are. You can easily make the others based on the first two by following the same procedures and principles.

Let's continue. Make sure you check the Philippine calendar for the holidays as they may diminish your excursion. You have to travel very easily. Wear comfortable clothing and waterproof shoes. You should have a lightweight backpack and a waterproof camera if you have one. Don't rely on ATMs or banks; therefore, you should carry cash or Philippine currency.

On average, you should spend about 1,100 Philippine currencies or pesos or $ 26 a day for island hopping or more, and that should cover transportation, food and more.

From Manila, the capital city

You should buy a two-way ticket to Manila at Ninoy International Airport. From Manila, take an internal flight to Cebu International Airport, located in Lapu-Lapu, Cebu City. You have a choice of hotels in Lapu-Lapu City. It takes about 45 minutes to fly from Manila to Cebu Mactan International Airport in Lapu-Lapu.

Once you get to Cebu, the first important thing you should do is to gather all the information about the ferry schedules: fare, date / time of departure and return to destinations. You should also book a room in advance if you plan to stay overnight in one place. Ask the front desk of your hotel for the information you are looking for.

You have to decide if you want to spend the night at each destination. This is the best way to synchronize your island jump. Basically, you may need to spend at least 4 or 5 nights in Cebu if you want to visit 3 or 4 neighboring islands, provided you do not stay in any of them.

The first island you may want to visit is Bohol. So from Cebu City, you take the ferry. At the front desk of your hotel, ask your business office how to travel to Bohol by ferry. With this information, a taxi driver will take you to the right berth for your Bohol ferry destination. Get a two-way ticket. Make sure you check the travel time and date.

You can decide to explore Bohol by bus or by car or with a tour guide. You have to decide. After you leave Bohol, you can decide to go to Leyte that day, probably early in the evening. Check the ferry timetable from Bohol to Leith to make sure your island jump will continue as planned.

Buy a ticket from Bohol to the bilateral route from the Evening shuttle Ubai (Bohol) to Bato (Leyte). Check your ferry tickets to make sure you are on time to return. From Bato, Leyte, you can hire a tour guide or a personal car with a driver to take you to some noticeable tourist areas; it's also an opportunity. However, the guide must be expensive. Since you arrive early in the evening in Leyte, you will have to stay overnight. You will find many hotels and restaurants to choose from.

You have almost a whole day to explore Leith. Ask your hotel receptionist for tours: city tours, boat tours, and more. If you decide to do some water sports, you can rent a small boat or take a passenger boat (bank) for the excursion. If you are tuned in for a dive, then take a dive boat. In this case, you can rent a battery and a mask and other paraphernalia right on the beach. Before you do, find out if this equipment comes with a diving tour fee.

If you like diving, you can also enjoy the scenery of pristine coral reefs covered in colorful fish. Perhaps after your enjoyable and exciting dive, you should be ready to take the ferry on your way back to Cebu. View your ferry timetable. If you have a little more time before heading to Manila, you may want to make some more island jumps on Sikiori, Mactan Island and the Oriental Negroes. Happy Island Jumping in the Philippines!

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Drones and their use by public and private bodies

An unmanned aerial vehicle is a remote controlled unmanned aerial vehicle that can also be used for specific operations, except that it can simply fly. Drones are used for photo and video shooting from above. Some are used for scientific or technical measurements. Some carry weapons and are used as combat tools. Still others are used to carry goods and posts between places. The latest developments are drones that carry tools for installation and repair.

The basic technology in the drone consists of some power plant, some drive mechanism, some steering mechanism, some sensors for recognizing the place and path and the sender-receiver unit for transmitting and receiving signals for control and recording. Drones are found in all forms that can be found in large aircraft, as well as in all kinds of exotic forms, such as oblong airships, discs, triangles, donuts, stars, or may resemble large insects or birds.

Small or light drones are typically driven by screws connected to battery-powered electric motors. Constantly more than one produces very light drones powered by solar panels that can fly in the air for weeks. Some drones are held in the air by lighter gas ignition, such as air, which also allows the drones to stay in the air for a long time. Higher or heavier drones generally operate from some combustion engine, such as piston, turbojet or turbojet engines.

You can also design drones powered by nuclear energy that can be in the air for days or weeks, especially if these drones are partially made of gas-filled burrs. Such nuclear energy sources should not be considered as nuclear reactors. Special isotopes can be generated from the energy source, which are highly emitting and thus produce enough heat to feed the drone. Some of these isotopes emit mainly alpha or beta rays that can be protected without heavy shells.

Since most drone applications are secret or simply not publicly disclosed, it is difficult to give a complete picture of the extent of their use and of those who use them, but based on official sources, journalistic and scientific articles from & # 39; and stories about people who interact with the drones that are in use.

Most drones are likely to be used by civilians and property owners for home surveillance of all kinds, such as border control, traffic surveillance, fire detection, air photography, geographic mapping, pipeline control, electrical network monitoring and behavior monitoring. Drones are constantly used to convey views of sports championships. Police forces use drones to detect and investigate crimes, a practice that also involves the direct spying of drones on private citizens in their homes.

Military forces have long been using drones to monitor foreign territories and war zones. The use of small tactical drones to deliver bombs, launch missiles and firing is old, but it is becoming increasingly important. Until 2014, such drones are widely used to investigate terrorist bases, to bomb such bases and to kill suspected terrorists. The classic drone used for both military and shelter facilities is the global Hauk RQ-4. Small Northrop-Grumman MQ-8 UAVs (A, B, and C) fire reconnaissances are examples of smaller combat drones used in local operations and launched from small ships or from ground corpses.

Long-range drones, in comparison to bomber aircraft, are used for both surveillance and destruction of targets at ground and sea level. Well-known examples of this are the Atomics MQ-1 Predator, an Atomics MQ-9 header capable of carrying heavier weapons loads and an even more sophisticated Atomics Avenger unmanned drone. The Isreli Eitan drone is a large long range surveillance and ground combat drone capable of keeping itself aloft for 70 hours.

Effective laser guns have been invented to date, and drones armed with laser guns are likely to be a reality by 2014, at least in experimental versions, but these drones need to be a certain size since the laser requires a large power generator driven by a turbine.

However, by 2014, the technical controls are probably not so sophisticated that it was possible to design fully reliable supersonic drones with fighter capabilities. However, unmanned supersonic fighters have been in the works for some time, and they have been tested for 2014 by 2014. By 2014, the x47B had been deployed from these Stelt-Grümman northern bombers to be deployed for realistic testing of aircraft carrier combat operations.

BAE is developing a hidden supersonic fighter drone in a project called Taranis. The French producer Dessault, together with other European actors, is working on a similar project called nEUROn. Both projects have produced pilot versions, which departed for testing by 2014. There are speculations that the 6th generation of fighter jets will be unmanned or can be manned or drone, depending on the choice. Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works and Boeing Corporation Phantom Works are the leading American developers of combat vehicles, including drones.

The information available indicates that Lockheed Martin is developing unmanned combat aircraft that use much of the same technology as the covert, vertical takeoff and landing F35B, a supersonic fighter, and that they are also developing a high-flying hypersonic unmanned spy plane. . It is logical to think that this hypersonic aircraft will also receive bombing capabilities.

Drones that simulate birds or other small animals have been designed and can be used for spying, shooting or poisoning purposes. It is rumored that such drones are already in use by some authorities. Rumors can tell that even spy and attack drones are being developed that resemble insects in shape and size. Probably, microtechnology has not yet gone so far as to make such drones, but there is a physical possibility of manufacturing such drones.

The US plans to allow solar-powered drones to be permanently housed in the upper atmosphere for surveillance. Such drones can be built at a lower altitude to avoid clouds and patrol areas that cannot be done with satellites. But perhaps high flying drones, which have been operating in the air for days or weeks, are powered by nuclear energy, have been used since ancient times. Some UFO sightings seem to point in this direction.

You can ask how often people see drones in flight or in use until 2014. Of course, there are no statistics about this. Sometimes people see flying objects that are clearly recognized by drones. Most often it will be difficult to determine what you have seen. Most UFO reports by 2014 are probably caused by drones.

Since at least larger drones can be compared to other airlines, they are obliged to keep lanterns and other means to prevent collisions, but since unmanned augers tend to want to keep a secret flight, such lanterns may be lit. only when other traffic is nearby or when operators want visual contact. This type of intermittent light is characteristic of many classic UFO sightings.

Also, the drones used for surveillance and investigation will mimic the image seen by objects in UFO reports: Sometimes they fly at different speeds, sometimes stop and just hover, they will often change direction from where they will come. maneuver near the ground, then fly up and forward.

Drone lights can also be used to illuminate targets, often on the ground, to record images, which is also seen in classic UFO stories. Many drones also have a shape similar to the classic UFO. In addition, drones will emit only a small noise, which is also typical of so-called UFOs.

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Choosing the right pool table for yourself

What about buying the right pool table. Buying a poolside table is really like buying a car. In many ways, you can connect the entire billiards industry to the automotive industry. It's amazing how many lessons our manufacturers and retailers can take from the trusted car industry. There are dozens of different manufacturers in different countries. Then you have to choose where you want to buy your billiards. Do you decide to buy from an authorized dealer or a small timer in your garage? Inside you will notice that there are several different designs and sizes. There is a wide choice of raw materials from which it is made. What's more, you have to decide what options you want, including spots, fabric, sights, and accessories. Are you going to buy new or used? And the list goes on and on.

The recommendation to buy a new one is always the best. Why? Forget for a moment about the different qualities and brands available. Now let's really look at the disadvantages of buying a new pool table. There is just one real drawback – the price. If you are thinking of buying a pool table and you are only motivated by the price and the price; then you may be best placed to go for something used. However, if you can wait, if you can take some time to slow down the acquisition momentum now; then you will notice that you will reap all the benefits that come with buying a new one. Remember, there are numerous brands and qualities. You would give up setting, quality, transferring of generations, warranties and guarantees. Need to say something more? It is obvious.

Buying a pool table is a huge expense. You do not have to simply calculate, for both used and retail stocks, as it is cheaper. You wouldn't agree to a car you don't want just because it's cheap, right? Maybe, but you know what you want. You know what you like. Build it and be part of the process. It will be something that you can pass on to your children. However, there are some cases that buying stock or used items may just make more sense. Just know what works for you.

Okay, so what's the best pool table available? This is already up for debate. I worked on it for many years and saw it. Some are wonderful, others are firewood. Generally speaking, I would recommend that you buy something made in the US using deciduous wood in construction and containing Brazilian or Italian slate in the form of a triple.

As a side note: Tables from China are just not good. Slate from China is just not good. If you think that slate is just slate; then say to the numerous customers who made the mistake of buying these necessary remodeling frames, slate replacements, and new parts that ended up costing them more than what they paid for a whole new table. The Chinese slate is stiff and rigid, preventing it from bending, so it easily cracks and breaks. Their pool tables are mass-produced on a "line" with spotting and trim. Of course, they look great. They can even play a little OK, but these finishes are cracking and cheap woods are being used, and they are twisted. It won't take long either.

There is also a difference in MADE IN US and BUILDING IN US. There are many state-owned companies that claim to be made in the US, but are actually only assembled here. I do not buy from anyone. Do research, talk to the right people, and educate yourself. I can list many US manufacturers for you, but this can be determined and taken away by the value of product research. Let's try to remember that this is a process more than an impulse purchase.

Slate tables of one piece are outdated for the home. The bars are nice, but it's not what you want in your home. First, who wants to move it? Nobody does. Second, they just can't get the same level of accuracy that a triple slate table can get. Overall alignment is all you get from one piece of piece and three pieces of slate, not only gives you that, but also adds a subtle element of customization that will hold that level longer and counteract the curvature.

Finding the right manufacturer and retailer takes some time. Find the best ones that fit your budget and, more importantly, meet your needs. The internet can give you ideas, but you have to go out there and actually look at the product. Do not rush. Find what works best. Remember, this is your money.

The size and style is entirely up to you. There is nothing that can be done to influence this. How many rooms do you have? This will help you estimate what size will fit into your home. However, think about it carefully. Remember how often we Americans move. What might fit in your current home may not fit your next. What decor do you have and present in your home? Does the traditional look, contemporary design or style of the tournament suit you and your home? On the pool table there can be variants from legs, frames (arched, without arch, double arch) and rails of rails (paved, ordinary, comb). All of these things should be considered. Come out and look at them!

There are more common types of woods used to make pool tables. Typically, you will see a chipboard of veneer and laminate above it, poplar wood (or tulips), oak (white or red), solid white maple, hickory, walnut, mahogany or some other exotic woods. There are tables made of marble, car parts, metal and other amazing materials. However, your standard deciduous trees will be oak or maple for most traditional models, and laminate will usually be used on contemporary corner tables in your tournament style. As a general rule, follow the standard forests and work ahead.

Which ones are important to you? Which is not? Typically, your native hardwood will last a very long time. Another important note about "hardwood", poplar is technically considered as deciduous wood, but most do not recognize it this way. It is easy to bend, even if you squeeze it together in layers. Do not fool the seller. Tournament-style tables are basically all made of wood chipboard with high or low quality laminate. Don't let it interfere with buying it, because the particle is not that big. It's not, but some good things make a good table out of it.

Today there are many different spots and finishes. The stain is basically the color they make with wood, and the finish is something that goes into protection and shine. The colors of the spots vary from natural and light to dark and black. Finishes will usually only be available in a few different variants, with matte, semi gloss and high gloss being the most popular. These two items are all about your personal preferences and decor. Check them out, especially for fabric color options.

No longer are the days of traditional green fabric. There are dozens of colors available now, and you're not limited to greens and blues of the past. However, there are different types of fabric. They will be divided into two types: woolen and worsted.

Woolen or pile fabric is your standard in home and recreational fabrics. Most retailers include this type as a standard cloth when buying a table. Very rarely will you see it in the pool hall unless the owner is cheap. This fabric is usually a mixture of nylon and wool. It is sometimes called a pile cloth because it has microfibers that look like carpets. Professionals stay away from this fabric because it does not pull the slate so tightly to reduce speed and accuracy, it is usually a pill, the balls will recede grooves and give it a "swing".

Fabric fabric is also a similar mixture with a much higher wool content. This stuff is the best of the best. It's stretchy enough to stretch to incredible tightness, giving the game extreme precision and speed enough to keep professionals in position throughout the game. He does not pill or tear as his brother woolly, but he is heavy and durable, which continues his life in most scenarios. If you have extra money, get it! Do not skimp on the fabric, but be aware that there is really only one genuine manufacturer, and other brands of worsted wool are just cheap clogs.

Sights are presented in many different materials and styles. You will see round and rhombic monuments made of plastic, mother of pearl, ear, and metals such as brass and chrome. You can have them in different colors or have a double diamond look to them. The most common double-diamond style will consist of a mother-of-pearl view surrounded by a sapling. This gives the pool table a completely different look and feel.

Then we come to the accessories. They are what they are, and most often you are going to get a set with your desk that comes straight from China and generally sucks. It's okay, though, because it's the initial items. Naturally, you want the best you can get with your purchase, but don't let one guy tell you his desk is better because he has the best accessories. As you learn the game and get more involved, you will appreciate and understand the value of upgrading your equipment over time. Personally, if the balls are not Aramit, the tips are not worthy of Americans; then i don't want them. However, they become expensive and not as necessary until after you have a feel for the game and want better equipment.

So the last thing to mention when looking for the perfect pool table is the guarantees and guarantees. Why is this important? Simple, if the manufacturer does not support their product for a lifetime, and the retailer does not support its operation with a lifetime warranty; what good is the product and service provided. Remember the generation that passed? How can this be expected if the manufacturer and seller do not even believe in their product? It is difficult to find the right combination of manufacturer, but they are. If you can't offer these two simple things, then you shouldn't do any work at all. Forget about them.

If the brand is right, then call the manufacturer and tell them that you want their product without vendors, and tell them why. This is the retailer right, and the brand is mistaken, you may need to explore other options with them or find another brand.

It's all about you and it's understanding of your analysis. After all, you have to decide what is right for you by brand, value, quality and style.

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Tips for choosing a Hajj package

Hajj, which cleanses man of all sins, is a very sacred journey, the spiritual aspect of which can be overshadowed when faced with logistical troubles. Therefore, choosing the perfect Hajj package is extremely important for you to be able to focus on the spiritual aspect of the journey.

Here are some aspects to consider when choosing a Hajj package:

1. Choosing an agency registered with the Hajj Ministry through a sub-agent increases your chances of a peaceful journey. Registered agencies, more familiar with the latest visa rules and regulations, can contact the Hajj Ministry to resolve the issue, reporting to the ministry if pilgrims file a complaint and are more adept at airline, hotel and transportation arrangements. They are also cheaper, since only authorized agencies can travel to Saudi Arabia. Sub Agents must purchase services from these Agencies and therefore sell the package at an Targeted Price.

2. Despite all the benefits of licensed agents mentioned above, you can choose a sub agent if you've heard of good things about them. All authorized agents may not provide proper services, although some sub agents are very professional. Therefore, you should choose a Hajj package provider based on referrals.

3. You need a company of knowledgeable and experienced leadership in your group. No matter how much information you have gathered from books and lectures, you may have questions that you have not previously anticipated. It is also important to know if the travel agency is seeking advice from their guide. For the convenience of logistics, some agents may plan to travel to Arafat and Muzdalifah before the time recommended by Islamic law. Choosing an agency planning a trip under a venerable imam can reduce the risks of taking a shortcut or against Sunnah.

4. Be sure to check if they will perform the Hajj with the pilgrims of your chosen package. It is difficult to contact an imam if he is in another hotel, traveling in another bus or living in another tent in Minnie from yours. This problem is especially common with agencies that offer a wide variety of packages under the guidance of one or two imams.

5. Having a women's guide will be helpful for pilgrim sisters.

6. It is useful to check that the travel agency has a full-time employee in the US and Saudi Arabia. The more the agency relies on external resources, the more likely it is to suffer from homelessness. In addition, the longer the agency provides Hajj services, the better equipped it is to provide organized services.

7. Most Hajj packages advertise fares from New York to Jeddah. If you live elsewhere, be sure to include the cost of your domestic New York ticket when choosing a package. Also add the cost of Hajj and Zabiha to get an estimate of the exact amount you will spend per person.

8. Staying at a comfortable site is very helpful. A hotel close to Haram and Masjid – e-Nabvi is more important than the number of stars of the hotel because it will shorten travel time, save energy for worship and save time without enduring long queues to make voodoo or use toilets. It may be better if you share your room with four people at a hotel near Haram and do not share the room with another person, but at a greater distance from Haram. Moreover, hotel ratings meet Saudi Arabian government standards that differ from US hotel rating standards.

9. Do not worry too much if the Hajj package does not offer meals in Mecca and Medina. There are many options around Haram for eating and drinking between prayers, but it can take a long time to wait in line. Hotel buffets can be a time saver or a great distraction, as often people can spend too much time communicating too much. However, it is good to get food in Minnie and Arafat, as options will be limited. If you are having a Hajj with your family, it may be better to choose a package that offers food throughout the trip.

10. Choosing Hajj landings, which initially land in Medina, can save time spent on immigration lines. Pilgrims who land in Jeddah can survive immigration for 14-18 hours before leaving for Mecca. However, choosing a package where pilgrims land in Jeddie opens up many more flight options and may be cheaper. The same is true of exiting Saudi Arabia. Medina as a port for entry or departure can save a lot of time.

11. Ask the agent about the location of the tent in the Mini. VIP tents are mostly (if not all) within walking distance of Jamarat. However, the usual tents in a North American camp are a 50-minute walk to Jamarat one way. In fact, some tents are not even in the Mini. They are located outside the huge signs that read "Mine ends here!"

12. Hajj packages that promise access to private apartments while staying in Mina are a plus. The tents in the Mini are small, just enough space to relax. This way, pilgrims can leave their luggage in their rooms while staying in Minnie. It also opens up the possibility of using bathrooms and showers rather than those installed in Mina camp.

13. Hajj packages, which offer free transfers from Mina to Haram, can help you save money. The cost of shuttles is increasing exponentially during the days of Mina. Profitable, many people come from other cities to work as taxi drivers, and may even get lost trying to drive pilgrims to Haram. Buses, although cheaper, take a long time. Therefore, the transfer service provided by your agent will be faster and free of charge.

14. Most Hajj packages provide SIM cards. It can also be a time saver. Otherwise, you might have to wait in lines to get a SIM card.

Given these logistical issues when choosing the perfect Hajj package, we hope to reduce your daily hassle of performing Hajj and allow you to focus on your worship of your heart's content.

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How can I expand my international business on eBay?

It is a very large world with more than 193 recognized countries. Adding all the dozens of colonies and territories controlled by other countries, their numbers are rapidly increasing to almost 200 countries worldwide. For eBay sellers seeking to expand internationally, many are afraid of customs and regulations that are different in each country. How could one eBay seller well understand each country's customs rules? The answer is simple – you can't. So, what does an eBay seller do to avoid this by choosing to market their product to the world? Slow methodical international expansion is the way to turn customs into a buyer.

Stage 1 for US seller international expansion

The first step in the process is to change the page of your shipping policy for your listings. One of the nice features of eBay is that you can choose the specific countries you want to start serving internationally. But which countries should you choose? Currently, USPS offers a service called International Package International International. The USPS has increased the rates for postal services for this category of service level, and in some cases doubled. However, it does allow a new eBay International customer to deliver an international 4-ounce package and receive a confirmation of delivery in the selected countries. These are the first countries to start your new international business on eBay.

Activate the following countries:

Canada Australia United Kingdom

Netherlands Germany Switzerland

Belgium New Zealand Sweden

Spain Ireland Finland

France, Portugal, Brazil

Insurance

If you use an order management system such as Shipstation or Shipworks, they will allow you to purchase insurance for these packages. This will alleviate your concerns about potential fraud and lost packages.

Delivery policy

Make sure you set up your shipping policy pages to reflect the fact that you currently serve the countries mentioned above. Make sure you choose the right shipping service and indicate that you do not offer international combined delivery. In addition, please make sure that you indicate that goods that are banned from entering your country are responsible for the buyers. The seller is not responsible for any prohibited, restricted or prohibited items from entering your customs agency. If you have questions about travel restrictions, contact your local customs agency. Taxes and taxes levied on shipments are the sole responsibility of the buyer.

Addressing the label system

As you expand into the international market, you want to use an address management system that will grow with your business. I always recommend using Endicia.com. Endicia allows you to take advantage of commercial base rates for your domestic parcels and will allow you to generate labels compatible with international Class 1 packages. This will become an important feature as your business grows.

Measure your success

Keep track of how many packages you ship internationally each day. The main statistics you want to measure are:

1) Number of international orders?

2) Percentage of lost packages according to your international orders?

3) Percentage of fraudulent orders?

4) How does it compare to your business in the US?

5) From which country do you receive the most orders?

Stage 2 For international expansion of eBay US seller (shipping over 20 packages a day abroad)

Thus, you are at the stage of one of your international expansion, and you see true success in expanding your business. As a seller, you know that if you can lower your postal rates internationally, you will be able to expand your business even further. How do you achieve this? You are contacting a USPS Qualified Wholesale Wholesaler. You will need to contact your global account manager with USPS to find and contact a qualified mail dealer.

Okay, so you found a USPS qualified wholesaler and want to know which USPS bulk mailer to choose? Every eBay seller answers this in a different way. For the most part, you have two options:

US International Priority Flight Route

This is a USPS Class 1 international mail service offered by Qualified Wholesale Merchants (PQW) for more than 200 countries. In essence, USPS outsourced to the United States the sorting, transportation and preparation required for international distribution. PQW will deliver your mail to the USPS International Sorting Center (ISC), released and ready to depart for the next flight. Because the USPS receives a mail release, your packages will not be scanned at the receiving center and will not receive a shipment confirmation scan in the destination country. The benefits of this service are that in many cases your postal rates will be halved. You will be able to download the same tracking numbers on eBay, but they will not scan the delivery. Now this is a useful statistic for you. If you are experiencing a high percentage of losses from Phase 1 testing, then this service is not for you. However, if you are experiencing a loss loss percentage, you may want to check this service to optimize your postal savings and increase the number of international orders received. If you feel you need to track these orders, you should use the following service. For more information on International Priority Airmail, see An article on EzineArticles.com called USPS International Priority Airmail for E-Commerce Companies.

USPS Commercial ePacket

This is a USPS Class 1 international postal service, offered by Qualified Wholesalers (PQW) in only 15 countries. The main difference between commercial ePacket and international priority mail is that ePacket will have a delivery and scan confirmation number delivered to the post office. The agreement here is that this service is more expensive than international priority mail.

Important considerations

Some important considerations that you want to take into consideration when deciding which direction you are going to use your international shipping method

1) Will your business growth outweigh any risk of losing packages?

2) How many fraudulent claims do you have at international level now?

3) Is the sale price of your products low and easy to replace if your package is lost?

4) Do you want to insure yourself with a small portion of your postal savings to eliminate any risk of loss?

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History of McArthur Long Island Airport

Introduction

MacArthur Long Island Airport, located on 1310 acres in Suffolk County, is the only commercial service center in the region that has struggled with identity and purpose for most of its existence.

Its second 50,000-square-foot passenger terminal, opened in 1966, and which houses two opposite gates approaching the ramp, radiated a small atmosphere of the hometown – so much so that the original scene was shot. Outside the City. "

The further expansion, which resulted in an increase of one thousand percent of the area of ​​passenger terminals and about two million passengers annually, was sporadic and cyclical, being characterized by a new airline that always resulted in a sequence of passenger involvement, new continuous route execution, and additional low cost flights the trend. During peak cycles, the check-in, check-out and ramp locations were very expensive, while the troughs on the terminal floor could hear the pin drop.

His fight with the Catch-22 has always entailed the circular argument of carriers refusing to provide services at the airport due to a lack of passengers and passengers reluctant to use the airport due to lack of service.

It is, in fact, the force that has shaped its history for seven decades. And this is, in fact, the history of MacArthur Airport on Long Island.

1. Leakage

The Civil Aviation Act of 1938, under section 303, provided for federal funds to be spent on landing, provided the administrator could confirm that "such landing areas were reasonably necessary for use in aviation trade or for national defense purposes."

At the outbreak of World War II, Congress allocated $ 40 million to develop National Defense Plans, or "DLAND," of which civilian land expansion (DCLA) was an extension. Since civil aviation was initially perceived as an "addition" to military aviation, it was considered a "segment" of the national defense system, thus gaining direct support from the federal government's civilian airport. Local authorities provided land and subsequently maintained and operated the airports. Construction of 200 such airfields began in 1941.

Long Island Regional Airport, located in Islip, was one of them. On September 16 of that year, the city of Islip was the designated owner and operator of Islip Airport, initially named a project under an official ordinance that designated Public Law 78-216, giving land, while the federal government agreed to plan and build its own airport. The $ 1.5 million, one-year construction project, started in 1942, resulted in an airfield with three 5,000-foot runways and three access routes. Although it fulfilled its original military purpose, it was always intended for public use.

Despite extensive preparation for instrument flight after the installation of landing gear (ILS) equipment in 1947, the regional facility did not meet its projected expectations of becoming New York's premier airport after the recent construction of Idlewild. Losing Lockheed as a major tenant in 1950, from the long-renamed MacArthur Airport in honor of General Douglas MacArthur would go a long way in developing this before it happens.

2. Initial service

The federal government-funded passenger terminal and 5,000-square-foot restaurant were built in 1949. The infrastructure-equipped airport, surrounded by growing local communities, sought its first public air service by filing a petition with the Civil Aviation Board. Islip tried to attract scheduled air travel back in 1956, eventually acquiring Gateway Airlines three years later when it launched operations, at an air taxi level, with a fleet of 11 passengers de Haviland Golub and a 15-passenger Havana Heels to Boston, Newark and Washington. However, underfunding led to its premature termination only eight months later.

The airport, which currently had only 20 aircraft, made about 30,000 movements annually. Alighaine Airlines subsequently received full flight guidance from CAB in 1960 and in September opened four daily Convar & Martinliner flights to Boston, Philadelphia and Washington, carrying more than 19,000 passengers in 1961, in 1961 first first year of work. .

Two years later, the FAA opened the New York Air Traffic Control Center and a seven-story control tower, and in 1966 the $ 1.3 million, 50,000 square foot oval terminal replaced the original rectangular structure.

Mohawk, the second CAB route administration that year, opened the Fairchild FH-227 service in Albany, and two scheduled airlines have carried about 110,000 passengers since the renamed Islip MacArthur Airport until 1969.

Runways and runways have been gradually expanded, partly in response to the designation of East and Pan-Am airports as a "substitute" in their flight plans.

3. The first major carrier service

For a long time, it was envisaged an airport for JFK and La Guardia that would provide limited but important continuous service to key US cities and centers such as Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, Atlanta, Pittsburgh, Chicago and major Florida destinations, Long Island Airport needed additional service from the major airline, but this goal remained elusive.

The cycle, however, was disrupted on April 26, 1971, when American Airlines opened the 727-100 Astrojet service in Chicago-Hare, the first clean jet operation and the first boot to allow the same day. business trips backwards and elimination of necessary trips to La Guardia. Thanks to the prestige of America's major air transportation, it also attracted passengers, indicating that Islip has reached the status of "major airport" and the Chicago route, which is now the longest continuous aerial field, has provided vital life landmarks, the City of the Midwest and the American a route system that offers multiple flights.

The route was quickly followed in the summer when the Allegheny DC-9-30 service was opened to Providence and Washington, and Altair operated Beech B99 and Nord N.262 turbojets to Bridgeport and Philadelphia two years later.

American, Allegheny (who periodically merged with Mohawk in 1972) and Altair provided established air services on Long Island during the 1970s.

To reflect its regional location, the facility was renamed for the fourth time, accepting the title of McArthur Airport in Long Island in 1978.

Throughout much of the 1970s, it served an average of 225,000 passengers annually. Allegheny, a major operator, offered nine daily BAC-111 and DC-9-30 jet cleaners throughout 1978.

Until March 1982, USAir, rebranded by Allegheny Airlines, was the only remaining pure-jet carrier with a daily DC-9-30 service in Albany and a BAC-111-200 service in Washington-National – perhaps emphasizing its ability to profitably operate aerodromes communities with its proper 2D equipment.

The early 1980s was characterized by a predominance of passenger and regional carriers operated by Pilgrim, New Haven Airlines, Altair, Air North, Mall Airways and Ransome. The latter, initially flying as part of the Allegheny Commuter Consortium, later operated independently under its own name in connection with Delta Air Lines, offering about 17 daily departures of M-298 and DHC-7 to seven regional cities.

In addition to Ransom, regional air plants often seemed to be expanding rapidly: Suburban / Aleggi-Commuter, South Jersey / Allegini-Commutter, the Empire, and the Henson-P & A Regional Airlines had taken off. Precision, which opened daily Dornier Do-228-200 services to both Boston and Philadelphia, operated independently of both Precision-Eastern Express and Precision-Northwest Airlink, and was the only airline to offer scheduled services from nearby Airports Republics in Farmingdale, first of all general aviation field.

4. Northeast International Airlines

Market research has long pointed to the need for continuous service to Long Island Florida through its concentration of tourist attractions and to facilitate visits to children on Long Island and retired parents in Florida. Deregulation, the sheer force behind multiple airlines, diverging services and fares, and the relative ease of new entry have spawned Northeastern International, which was founded to provide high-density, low-cost, limited-service and idealized services non-stop, Long Island – Florida, when it opened operations on February 11, 1982 with the former Evergreen International DC-8-50, initially offered four weekly roundtrip trips to Fort Lauderdale and one to Orlando. After the acquisition of the second aircraft, it was able to record a total of 150,000 passengers during the first year of service, with 32,075 boarded in December alone.

Although the company is headquartered in Fort Lauderdale, its operational base was established at MacArthur on Long Island and eventually served Fort Lauderdale, Hartford, Miami, Orlando and St. Petersburg with two DC-8s and two former Pan Am 727 -100s with seven daily departures. By incorporating both the carrier's charter strategy of operating high-end, one-of-a-kind, low-cost service, and the core strategy of high-capacity airlines, it has actually served as a very competitive route – from New York to Florida – without any competition from Islip .

Prior to 1984, when the Northeast was the catalyst for the inauguration of carriers and routes, eleven airlines operated the airport, including Allegini Commuter, American, Eastern, Imperial, Henson, New Aire, Northeast, Pilgrim, Ranswolem, Ransomme JFK and La Guardia Air Services, which directly serve the Long Island market and performed the originally intended role of the airport to become a secondary commercial property in New York. While providing uninterrupted service Chicago-O & Hare with Islip, American and United competed for the same passenger base.

By 1986, for the first time in 36 years, McArthur on Long Island handled one million passengers, a level that was equal to or exceeded.

To meet the demand for explosion and ease its now overstretched passenger structures, the city of Islip has launched a progressive terminal improvement program, which initially included the addition of two suburban gates, a former frontal awning and a double lane east for three relocated car rental counters and Austin Travel. The interior roadway has been refurbished and additional parking spaces have been created.

The more grandiose terminal expansion program, which took place in 1990 and cost $ 3.2 million, led to the appearance of two comforts lined up on motorcycle bridges extending from the rear of the oval terminal, adding 22,700 square feet of space. The expansion of the 1,000-foot runway 6-24 was eventually completed three years after the decade, mainly by local residents' resistance due to a likely increase in noise.

By the end of 1990, the transformation of McArthur Airport on Long Island from a small airport in a hometown served by a couple of operators to the main facility serving most major carriers was completed.

Some conclusions can be drawn from the 30-year history of the airport.

1. Allegheny-USAir, together with its regional subsidiaries Allegheny Commuter and USAir Express, provided the initial spark that led to the current explosion and was the only consistent anchor during its thirty-year scheduled service history between 1960 and 1990. while it absorbed other Islip operators, including the original Mohawk and P & Emont, the latter of which periodically absorbed the Empire and Henson, and also dumped others, such as Ransome Airlines, which, as an independent carrier, almost created a regional, turboprop hub .

2. Three echelons were equivalent to three ethers: (1). Allegheny-USAir, who reserved the distinction of being the first, largest, and, for a while, a pure-response operator on Long Island; The American who changed his image, associating it with the great prestige of the highway; and Northeast, whose bold, innovative open service and low tariffs were directly responsible for the last, steady growth cycle.

3. Many airlines, unaware of the potential of the facility's movement, have never abandoned the air field forever, including American and Eastern, which have suspended operations but subsequently returned; Northeast, which returned after two bankruptcies; United, which discontinued its service but maintained presence through two separate regional airlines – the Presidential United Express and Atlantic Coast-United Express – while continuing to connect its Washington-Dulles hub; Continental, which returned through its own contractual trip; and Pilgrim, which, despite the discontinuation of service, maintained a stand-alone registration counter where it handled other carriers until it resumed service.

4. Of the approximately 30 airlines that operated MacArthur on Long Island, many indirectly maintained their presence either through name change, takeovers by other carriers, or two-letter regional airline code sharing agreements.

5. The northeast forged air connection between Long Island and Florida, despite its own bankruptcy, has never been lost and other carriers have always filled the void, including East, Carnival, Braniff, Delta Express and Spirit Spirit.

However, due to its fragility in the market, Long Island Regional Airport was much more vulnerable to economic cycles than New York's original airports, resulting in deteriorating conditions that often lead to an outflow of carriers in search of cheaper routes. For example, in 1994, three airlines discontinued service and one ceased operations.

The $ 13.2 million, 32-year, multi-refurbished oval terminal expansion program, funded by revenue generated from passenger facilities (PFCs), began in spring 1998 and ended in August of the following year, resulting in an increase of 62,000 square feet. The expanded, customized structure included the addition of two wings – a four-luggage carousel, three car rental counters and several airline luggage service offices, and a sunrise of 48 (unlike the previous 20) passenger seats. The original oval-shaped structure now housed larger newspaper and souvenir shops and moved into the central checkpoint, but maintained a take-out diner, Skyway top café and cocktail lounge, as well as twin brothers envisioned in Jetbridge competitions added during the 1990 Extension Stage. As the ramp parking of the planes gradually increased until the last grass turned concrete. Renovated entrance road, extension of existing short-term parking, 1000 additional parking spaces and quasi-park system divided into sections for workers, residents, hourly, daily and economical (long-term) completed the renovation. The transfer between the parking lot and the terminal was first provided.

5. Southwest Airlines

Efforts to engage Southwest Airlines began in late 1996, when a rapidly expanding, high-yielding, low-cost carrier was considering operating in the third northeast city after Manchester and Providence, including New York Stewart International and Westchester County; Hartford and New Haven in Connecticut; and Teterboro and Mercer County in New Jersey. They were all smaller, medium sized airports typical of its itinerary system. He even briefly studied service at the Farmingdale Republic Airport on Long Island and Teterboro in New Jersey, both of which were nonprofit, industry-wide aviation fields with a concentration of business reagents. Three offered terminal improvements in exchange for the service. Але Мак-Артур на Лонг-Айленді був остаточно обраний через 1,6 мільйона жителів, які проживають в радіусі 20 км від аеропорту, здоров’я місцевого бізнесу, і, за словами головного виконавчого директора Південно-Заходу Герба Келлехера, "недооцінене, завищене повітряне обслуговування", яке було " стигли до конкуренції ".

Після первинного інтересу до Південного Заходу в 1997 році тодішній керівник міста Ісліп Пітер МакГоуан та інші посадові особи вилетіли до Далласу, де Герб Келлехер заявив про необхідність раніше описаних розширень терміналів та стоянок до початку операцій. Зустріч закінчилася лише символічним рукостисканням.

Майже дворічні зусилля щодо залучення авіакомпанії завершилися оголошенням про грудень 1998 року, який розпочав Південно-Західний захід, що відбувся 14 березня 1999 року, з 12 щоденними 737 відправленнями, у тому числі вісім до Балтімору, два – до Чикаго-Мідвей, один до Нешвілла і один – Тампа, всі з яких забезпечували б через або підключення до 29 інших міст, що обслуговуються на південному заході. Хоча очікувались, що рейси з низьким тарифом притягуватимуть пасажирів, які в іншому випадку можуть прилетіти з аеропортів JFK або La Guardia, вони в основному були орієнтовані на ринок Лонг-Айленда і, як побічний продукт, слід було залучити збільшення аеропортного руху база, додаткові перевізники та приносять приблизно 500 000 доларів на рік для міста Ісліп. Дві ворота на південному заході можуть вмістити до 20 щоденних відправлень – або на вісім більше, ніж включено вступний графік польоту – перед тим, як отримати додаткові засоби. Станція Islip, у якій працюють 44 персони, представляла своє 53-те місце призначення у 27 штатах.

Південний захід забезпечив четверту іскру в циклі притягання авіакомпаній та привабливості пасажирів на Лонг-Айленді, простежуючи наступним чином:

1. Оригінальна служба повітряного таксі Gateway Airlines 1959 року та початкова послуга авіакомпанії Allegheny Airlines 1960 року.

2. Перші рейси магістралі, чисто реактивні американські авіакомпанії 1971 року.

3. Перша низькодоступна, безперервна послуга Північно-Східної Міжнародної Флориди 1982 року.

4. Перша послуга на південному заході з низькими тарифами, високочастотна, 1999 року.

Американський, останній з первісних, головних перевізників, який звільнив аеропорт, залишив його з трьома типами авіакомпаній, що переважали, як наблизилося тисячоліття:

1. Авіакомпанія, що працює на турбореактивних маршрутах, яка обслуговує пункти призначення, такі як Олбані, Бостон, Баффало, Хартфорд та Ньюбург.

2. Регіональний оператор реактивного транспорту, який годує свого основного філіалу-перевізника на одному з його центрів, таких як АСА, що годує Дельта в Атланті, Комайр, що з'єднує з Дельтою в Цинциннаті, та Континентальний експрес, інтегруючи свій графік польотів із Континенталом у Клівленді.

3. Низький тариф, з високою щільністю, без надмірних перевезень, який здійснює орієнтовані на дозвілля сектори до Флориди. Станом на 1 грудня 1999 року три авіакомпанії, включаючи Delta Express, Southwest та Spirit, здійснювали 15 щоденних відправлень до п'яти пунктів призначення Флориди.

Розширення та покращення пасажирських приміщень на Лонг-Айленді Макартура, інавгурація обслуговування Південного Заходу та залучення інших перевізників у сукупності призвели до 113% збільшення пасажирських посадки у 1999 році порівняно з попереднім періодом. Цифра, яка лише соромилася двохмільйонних знаків, була найвищою у комерційній історії аеропорту Лонг-Айленда за чотири десятиліття. Південний Захід несли 34% від цього загального числа.

За цей час послугами було надано одинадцять авіакомпаній: ASA Atlantic Southeast, American, Business Express, Comair, CommutAir / US Airways Express, Continental Express, Delta Express, Piedmont / US Airways Express, Shuttle America, Spirit та Southwest.

Менш ніж через два тижні після того, як Південно-Захід забезпечив треті ворота і збільшив щоденні відправлення до 22, він, небаченим кроком, оголосив про намір самостійно фінансувати 90 відсотків розширення Східного курсу на 42 мільйони доларів, щоб побудувати чотири Додаткові, спеціальні ворота та місця для паркування ночівлі до кінця 2001 року, таким чином збільшивши поточну 19-х ворота аеропорту до 23.

Розширення курсу, призначене для того, щоб забезпечити йому збільшений номер для співробітників і пасажирів, звільнить існуючі три ворота для використання інших перевізників, в той час як його нове обладнання з чотирма воротами дозволить збільшити кількість послуг до приблизно 30 щоденних рейсів на основі майбутнього попиту пасажирів , доступність літаків та виліт у місті Ісліп збільшується.

Розширення ознаменувало б сьомий такий розвиток оригінального терміналу таким чином:

1. Оригінальна конструкція овальної клеми.

2. Частково закрита установка багажного пояса.

3. Конструкція двох приміських воріт.

4. Огородження переднього тенту, яке спричинило за собою переселення компаній, що орендували автомобіль та туристичне агентство Austin Travel, та встановлення збільшеного повністю закритого багажного пояса.

5. Побудова оснащених реактивним мостом східних і західних континентів.

6. Будівництво Крила Західних прибуттів та Крила відправлення на Схід, розширення магазину сувенірів та переїзд центрального пункту безпеки.

7. Додаток із чотирма воротами, що фінансується на південному заході, збільшуючи кількість воріт відправлення з 19 до 23.

Жертва, як і всі аеропорти, після зниження трафіку після 11 вересня, аеропорт Лонг-Айленд Макартур втратив вісім щоденних вильотів, якими керували American Eagle, Delta Express і US Airways Express, хоча цифри пасажирів аеропорту в жовтні 2001 року були лише на шість відсотків нижче, ніж у рік раніше. Однак жодне місце без зупинки не було розірвано. Завдяки щоденній частоті польотів Delta 737-200 у Флориді поступово знижувались від найвищого рівня від семи до всього одного – до Форт-Лодердейла – його операції можна розділити на три категорії:

1. Турбопропор регіональний

2. Чистоструйний регіональний

3. Південний захід

Тим не менш, за чотири роки з моменту відкриття служби Південний Захід аеропорт обслуговував 820790 пасажирів, або щорічно в середньому два мільйони. Без Південного Заходу це, в кращому випадку, обробляло б лише половину цієї суми.

30 квітня 2003 року вдруге за п’ятирічку аеропорт МакАртура на Лонг-Айленді розбився на нових термінальних спорудах. Розроблена архітектурною групою Baldassano, архітектурною фірмою "Лонг-Айленд", яка завершила програму розширення та модернізації аеропорту на 13,2 мільйона доларів у 1999 році, нове додаткове об'ємом з чотирма воротами площею 154 000 квадратних футів було побудовано на північній стороні існуючого сходу в якому розміщувалися операції Південного Заходу. Посилаючись на збільшення простору та потенційне зростання як причини нового об'єкта, Південно-Західний стверджував, що три існуючі ворота, які мали поле 24-х денних відправлень, досягли своєї точки насичення і що потрібна додаткова «дихальна кімната» як для пасажирів, так і для працівників. , особливо під час затримок рейсів. Чистий приріст додаткового воріт, який би поєднувався з більшими салонами, врешті-решт полегшить вісім додаткових рейсів до нових або існуючих пунктів призначення США, виходячи з попиту ринку.

Проект, спочатку прив'язаний до 42 мільйонів доларів, але згодом збільшився до 62 мільйонів доларів, фінансувався Південно-Заходом, який домагався відшкодування урядом з містом Ісліп до 18 мільйонів доларів за такі особливості будівництва, які не є авіакомпанією, такі як водовідведення аеродрому, який вважався утилітою загального користування.

Пікет Дж. МакГоуан, офіційно відкритий в кінці листопада 2004 року, площею 114 254 квадратних футів, який отримав доступ до нового тентового захищеного входу з бордюру аеровокзалу, нового крила. існуюча зона реєстрації пасажирів, вигнута зліва від телевізійних моніторів прильоту та вильоту до нового, великого контрольно-пропускного пункту безпеки, звідки пасажири піднімаються за допомогою двох ескалаторів до зони вильоту верхнього рівня.

Одночасно з відкриттям було оголошено, що Південно-Захід зараз приступить до II фази свого розширення шляхом створення другого додатку в розмірі 20 мільйонів доларів, який би з'єднав новий збір зі старим, і взагалі замінив би східний загін, який служив йому з моменту його відкриття У 1999 році проект включав ще чотири ворота, загалом вісім, що дозволило запропонувати до 80 щоденних відправлень.

6. Нове лідерство, скорочення обслуговування та покращення інфраструктури

Кінець 2000-го десятиліття, який характеризувався новим керівництвом, скороченням обслуговування авіакомпаній та інвестиціями в інфраструктуру, ще раз ознаменував перелом у циклі росту аеропорту Лонг-Айленд Макартур.

Аль Вернер, комісія з аеропорту на 53 роки, вийшов на пенсію 16 листопада 2007 року, передавши факел Терезі Різуто. Після тримісячного загальнонаціонального пошуку, проведеного наглядовим керівником Islip Філом Ноланом, вона принесла з собою значний досвід у галузі авіаперевезень і була призначена на посаду 5 лютого 2008 року після голосування в міській раді Ісліп, тепер дорученого провести обласне управління в наступне десятиліття, багатосторонній порядок денний обов'язково включав такі цілі:

1. Розробіть маркетинговий план, щоб збільшити визнання аеропорту, тим самим залучаючи більшу базу пасажирів.

2. Встановити нові, безперервні маршрути існуючих перевізників та залучити нових авіакомпаній, здатних конкурувати з існуючим, втраченим на південному заході, забезпечити необхідну базову послугу для цієї розширеної пасажирської бази, але не уникати відчуження місцевих жителів через надмірний шум.

3. Інвестуйте в модернізацію та розвиток інфраструктури, особливо на західній стороні аеропорту загальної авіації.

4. Збільшити доходи для міста Ісліп, власника аеропорту та оператора.

Сам існування Мак-Артура Лонг-Айленду спирався на його здатність обслуговувати потреби своїх клієнтів, а зменшення призначення та авіаперевезень протягом останньої частини десятиліття в поєднанні з мерехтливим, але швидко згасаючим проблиском надії нового перевізника лише заперечувало його призначення.

Дослідницькі переговори в 2007 році, наприклад, з південно-західним моделем, розташованим в Ірландії, Ryanair, призвели б до першої міжнародної та першої трансатлантичної служби аеропорту, що до цього було виключено відсутністю митних та імміграційних засобів, мало можливостей сполучення та недостатньою злітно-посадкової смуги. довжина, на якій важкі, навантажені паливом широкі літальні апарати можуть злітати для міжконтинентальних секторів. Але двигуни з більшою тягою, що полегшують продуктивність із скороченим полем, усунули останню проблему, і до Ірландії було здійснено розмитнення в США перед вильотом. Оскільки Південний Захід та Ryanair підтримували однакові бізнес-моделі діючих однотипних, 737 автопарків із недооцінених, завищених, вторинних аеропортів, нижчі експлуатаційні витрати яких можна спрямувати на нижчі тарифи, внутрішній та міжнародний рух між ними було можливим. Незважаючи на існуючі послуги Islip, що надаються Delta та US Airways Express, Південний Захід все ж перевозив 92 відсотки своїх пасажирів. Однак запропонована стратегія ще не дала конкретних результатів.

Дійсно, до кінця року кількість потенційних рейсів на південно-західному сполученні зменшилася лише тоді, коли зменшення попиту потребувало скасування шести щоденних відправлень, у тому числі двох до Балтімору, трьох до Чикаго та одного до Лас-Вегасу.

Потенційне противагу втрат послуг відбулося 1 травня наступного року, коли Spirit Airlines, після восьмирічного інтервалу, повторно працював два рази на день, круговий рейс, A-319 до Ft. Лодердейл із вступними тарифами на $ 7,00, що сприяє 23 Карибським та Латиноамериканським сполученням через його південний центр Флориди.

А-319, перший регулярний рейс аеропорту, який регулярно проводився в аеропорту, під час вступу в рейс 6 піднісся в 0954 на ВПП 6, рушивши через подвійну водяну арку, створену подвійною пожежною машиною, перед тим як переходити в 1030 як Політ 833 з високим коефіцієнтом навантаження. Другий рейс вилетів увечері.

Відправлення було двома з більш ніж 200 системних рейсів Spirit до 43 напрямків, але слабке мерехтіння світла, яке вони забезпечили, було майже так само швидко зменшено, коли через три місяці, 31 липня, зростання цін на пальне та зниження економічних умов потребували їх припинення, залишаючи лише обіцянку повернення, коли покращені умови заслуговують на їх відновлення.

Подальше наведення ваг на сторону втрати послуг було рішенням компанії Delta Air Line про припинення єдиної щоденної, єдиної щоденної регіональної реактивної служби, що експлуатується її колегою по Комаї в Атланті, розбивши подачу до найбільшого в світі аеропорту з точки зору планових засідань та до найбільшого з'єднання Delta. хаб, і закінчивши присутність на Лонг-Айленді, встановленому ще в 1984 році. Дельта назвала причину припинення, а також на інших ринках, як спробу "оптимізувати … фінансові показники".

Друга втрата перевізника, залишивши лише Southwest та US Airways Express, призвела до зниження на 10,2% пасажирів у 2008 році порівняно з попереднім періодом.

Чергова спроба, але в основному невдала послуга авіакомпанії, сталася в червні 2009 року з появою PublicCharters.com, яка мала наміти зв’язати Ісліп з Гротоном, Коннектикутом та Нантакет, штат Массачусетс, протягом літа.

З метою усунення дефіциту розпізнавання ідентичності аеропорту Лонг-Айленд Макартур, проведене дослідження, проведене спеціальною групою Філа Нолана, чітко зробило висновок про те, що пошук та залучення нової послуги авіакомпанії "повинні бути головним напрямком управління", функцією до цього часу. переважно ігноруються. Відсутність визнання аеропорту в поєднанні з близькістю компанії JFK та La Guardia до Манхеттену та їх запаморочливим набором служб безперервної роботи ще більше закликала до необхідності дослідження.

A $150,000 federal grant, aimed at answering the elusive question of why Long Islanders still chose to use New York airports when Islip itself offered a nonstop flight, attempted to determine local resident travel patterns and then attract carrier-providing service.

A partial remedy had been the implementation of a $300,000 market campaign, in conjunction with the Long Island Railroad and Southwest Airlines, to increase airport awareness by the eastern Nassau and Suffolk County population, featuring the slogan, "We make flying a breeze."

Significant attention to airport infrastructure improvement and a related masterplan had also been given.

Long-awaited ramp repairs, for instance, had been made. One year after the $12.4 million apron covering gates five through eight had been laid in 2004, cracks, in which engine-digestible debris could potentially collect, appeared, and were traceable to an inadequate, six-inch-thick subbase which failed to rise above the ground level, and was therefore susceptible to frost. Water, seeping into the subbase, was subjected to freezing-thawing cycles which expanded the concrete, loosened its gravel, and propagated the cracks.

In order to replace the decaying, 105-foot control tower constructed in 1962, the FAA awarded J. Kokolakis Constructing, Inc., of Rocky Point, a $16.4 million contract to build a new, 157-foot, cylindrical tower next to it in January of 2008, a project completed in November of the following year, at which time internal equipment, costing another $8.8 million, was installed.

Instrumental in the airport's modernization had been the redevelopment of its 45-acre west side, which currently houses charter companies, flying schools, and airport maintenance in mostly dilapidated hangars and buildings, but could potentially be replaced with new energy efficient and conservation compliant structures optimally used by educational institutions offering air traffic control curriculums.

During the latter portion of the decade, Long Island MacArthur Airport once again rode the descending side of the revenue curve, but remains a vital air link and economic engine to eastern Nassau and Suffolk Counties.

Between 1996 and 2003, it had experienced an average annual economic impact growth rate of 6.85 percent and between 2001 and 2007 more than 900,000 square feet of commercial space was developed along Veterans Highway, its access roadway, as a result of it. According to Hofstra University's Center for Suburban Studies, its 2003 economic impact was pegged at $202 million and was projected to increase by 68 percent, or to $340 million, by the end of the decade without any further expansion, indicating that, as a revenue generator, that its potential had hardly begun to be tapped. The service reductions, increases in Homeland Security costs, and eroding economy had all reversed that potential, but its infrastructure improvements, more than 500,000-square-foot passenger terminal, four runways, easy access, uncongested environment, two-mile proximity to the Long Island Railroad's Ronkonkoma station, and four-mile proximity to the Long Island Expressway places it squarely on the threshold of growth in the next decade, when conditions improve. According to newly appointed Airport Commissioner Teresa Rizzuto, "We're ready" for new carriers at that time.

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Top India Travel Companies (OTAs) in India – Know them better before you use their services

There are over 30 online travel companies in India, with the exception of airlines and other hotels. Few of them specialize in a particular industry. For the benefit of all Indian visitors from all over the world, the top ten sites for booking a trip to India are –

Makemytrip.com – MakeMyTrip, India's # 1 Travel Site, founded and promoted by Mr. Deep Kalra, is the best website in the country for any travel related products and services. They offer flights, hotel reservations, car rentals, vacation spots and even train reservations now on their website. Makemytrip serves the US and Canadian markets, the Indian market, and recently they have also launched the UAE makemytrip. Makemytrip is now launching its first US IPO and is raising about $ 100 million. They overpaid and raised about $ 800 million. Their office is based in Gurgaon, India, and they have over 700 employees. Their code specialization is vacation planning and booking, including for travel travelers. It is estimated that they sell more than 8,000 tickets a day.

Yatra – Yatra is known to be the second best OTA travel website in the country. He was promoted by Drun Sringi, along with several other guys who had previously started working with ebooks. Yatra is funded by some of India's leading Reliance, TV 18 Group and NVP groups, and recently received funding from Intel. They specialize in domestic flights. They are also based in Gurgaon, India and have over 600 employees. They also book car rentals, hotels, vacations and train reservations. They are currently expected to sell over 5,000 tickets a day.

Cleartrip – Cleartrip was a new entrant in the Indian market about 3 years ago and they are known for their technology. As the name suggests, their technology is very clear, and you don't see any banners or pop-ups on their homepage. They were the first OTAs to integrate with the Indian Railways reservation system called IRCTC. They are based in Mumbai and have a smaller team than Makemitrip or Yatra.

Expedition India – Expedia has recently entered the Indian travel space, and they are now focusing on their hotel business. They have yet to integrate into their portfolio LCCs (low cost carriers) such as GoAir, GoIndigo, JetLite, Kingfisher Red and more. But I am sure that in a year they will lead the Indian market.

Travelocity India – Travelocity is again a new entrant in the Indian market and they are progressing rapidly. They recently purchased another OTA hotel called Travelguru. They are controlled from Singapore.

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Info Bitcoin

Can the development of Cornavirus turn it into a traditional banking and cryptocurrency section?

In Italy, there are suggestions that Banca Sella is preparing to launch Bitcoin trading services for many of its mobile banking customers.

The bank’s plans include using its 1.2 million Hype mobile banking platform, which allows users to create a Bitcoin (BTC) wallet, buy and sell BTC and retain full control over their owners – without the use of exchanges.

As the virus develops, bank users find it difficult to send or receive money from conventional financial providers – a factor that will allow many people to make decisions through cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin.

In its promotional material, the bank said installing bitcoin wallets was “completely free” and meant only “four steps”.
btc price usd
In addition, the bank invested trading capital in its new services – daily and annual sales and purchases.

Hype Start customers will be able to buy and sell for a maximum of $ 2,700 per year, plus Plus and Premium account holders buy and sell at rates of $ 54,000 per year.

According to a 2016 study, Sella is the 20th largest bank in Italy. It was founded in the late 19th century in the northern Italian city of Biella.

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